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Scientific literature

The literature list of the book lists 19 peer-reviewed journal articles. 13 (most of which have also been used for the book) have previously been summarized at the blog.

Below is the (corrected) list of scientific articles used for the book with short descriptions added for some of them.

  • Barnaby, W. (2009) Do nations go to war over water?. Nature, 458(7236), 282-283. DOI: 10.1038/458282a
    Writer Wendy Barnaby has written an essay for academic journal Nature in stead of a book for her publisher as the conclusion on "water wars" wouldn't sell. Some facts...There are 263 cross-boundary waterways in the world. Between 1948 and 1999, cooperation over water, including the signing of treaties, far outweighed conflict over water and violent conflict in particular.
  • P Le Billon. (2001) The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts. Political Geography, 20(5), 561-584. DOI: 10.1016/S0962-6298(01)00015-4
  • Carlsson-Kanyama, A., & Gonzalez, A. (2009) Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), 1704-1709. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736AA
  • Finer, M., Jenkins, C., Pimm, S., Keane, B., & Ross, C. (2008) Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples. PLoS ONE, 3(8). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002932
    Sometimes researchers are blamed of being alarmists stirring up fears of a fictional dystopia by the business-as-usual crowd. But it seems a forewarning of conflict over oil in Peru is proceeding according to exactly such a warning.
  • Godfray, H., Beddington, J., Crute, I., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S., & Toulmin, C. (2010) Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People. Science, 327(5967), 812-818. DOI: 10.1126/science.1185383
  • HELLER, N., & ZAVALETA, E. (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation, 142(1), 14-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.10.006
  • Lagi, Marco et al (2011). The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East. Physics and Society. DOI:
  • Hsiang, S., Meng, K., & Cane, M. (2011) Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nature, 476(7361), 438-441. DOI: 10.1038/nature10311
    Global patterns of civil conflict are directly associated with planetary-scale climate change. Specifically in tropical countries, the risk of civil war have just been shown to double in warmer El Niño years (to about 6% risk per country per year) compared to cooler El Niña years (when the risk is about 3%).
    (Unfortunately, this source is missing from the current print edition. But see pages 83-84.)
  • Lee, James R. (2009): A brief history of climate change and conflict. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. [
  • Lujala, P. (2010): The spoils of nature: Armed civil conflict and rebel access to natural resources. Journal of Peace Research, 47 (1), 15-28. DOI: 10.1177/0022343309350015
    How does rebel access to natural resources affect conflict? "How". Not "if". That is the question investigated by Päivi Lujala of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, recently published in the Journal of Peace Research.
  • Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare, W., Raper, S., Frieler, K., Knutti, R., Frame, D., & Allen, M. (2009) Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 °C. Nature, 458(7242), 1158-1162. DOI: 10.1038/nature08017
  • D Pimentel, S Cooperstein, H Randell, D Filiberto, S Sorrentino, B Kaye, C Nicklin, J Yagi, J Brian, J O’Hern.... (2007) Ecology of Increasing Diseases: Population Growth and Environmental Degradation. Human Ecology, 35(6), 653-668. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-007-9128-3
  • Hannah Reid. (2006) Climate Change and Biodiversity in Europe. Conservation and Society, 4(1), 84-101. info:other/
  • Reuveny, Rafael. (2008) Ecomigration and Violent Conflict: Case Studies and Public Policy Implications. Human Ecology, 36(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-007-9142-5
  • Rogelj, J., Hare, B., Nabel, J., Macey, K., Schaeffer, M., Markmann, K., & Meinshausen, M. (2009) Halfway to Copenhagen, no way to 2 °C. Nature Reports Climate Change, 81-83. DOI: 10.1038/climate.2009.57
  • Ross, Michael. (2004) What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War? Journal of Peace Research, 41(3), 337-356. DOI: 10.1177/0022343304043773
  • Solomon, S., Plattner, G., Knutti, R., & Friedlingstein, P. (2009) Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(6), 1704-1709. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812721106
  • Tang, L., Shao, G., Piao, Z., Dai, L., Jenkins, M., Wang, S., Wu, G., Wu, J., & Zhao, J. (2010) Forest degradation deepens around and within protected areas in East Asia. Biological Conservation, 143(5), 1295-1298. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.01.024
  • Magnus Theisen, O. (2008). Blood and Soil? Resource Scarcity and Internal Armed Conflict Revisited. Journal of Peace Research, 45 (6), 801-818 DOI: 10.1177/0022343308096157
    Inspired by the growing body of literature linking natural resource scarcity to conflict, dating back at least to the 1960s but gaining momentum in recent years, Norwegian Ole Magnus Theisen published a review of the statistical literature on this link in 2008.
  • David Zhang, Jane Zhang, Harry F Lee, & Yuan-qing He. (2007) Climate Change and War Frequency in Eastern China over the Last Millennium. Human Ecology, 35(4), 403-414. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-007-9115-8
    Zhang's study is a thorough mathematical correlation from climate to war frequency done on a macro-historical level.

If you are at a university or library or are willing to pay for them these articles are easily found by, for example, searching for the DOI codes at Google Scholar.

The inclusion of peer-reviewed research is crucial to the project. Without it news and history add up to little more than storytelling and speculation. Ecowar is about facts linking natural resources and conflict. Including both news, history, peer-reviewed research, lectures, speeches, physical facts, rational opinion and logic.

Although no near-future ResearchBlogging posts are planned: The easiest way to follow or find just the blog posts about scientific articles is probably via